2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练1 阅读理解。 (2014•绍兴统考) When people first walked across the Bering Land Bridge thousands of years ago, dogs were by their sides, according to a study published in the journal Science. Robert Wayne of the University of California, Los Angeles, and Jennifer Leonard of the Smithsonian Institute, used DNA material—some of it unearthed by miners in Alaska—to conclude that today’s domestic dog originated in Asia and accompanied the first humans to the New World about 10, 000 to 15, 000 years ago. Wayne suggests that man’s best friend may have enabled the tough journey from Asia into North America. “Dogs may have been the reason people made it across the land bridge, ”said Wayne. “They can pull things, carry things, defend you from fierce animals, and they’re useful to eat. ” Researchers have agreed that today’s dog is the result of the domestication(驯化)of wolves thousands of years ago. Before this rec ent study, a common thought about the precise origin of North America’s domestic dog was that Natives domesticated local wolves, the descendants(后代)of which now live with people in Alaska, Canada, and the Lower 48. Dog remains from a Fairbanks-area gold mine helped the scientists reach their conclusion. Leonard, an evolutionary biologist, collected DNA from 11 bones of ancient dogs that were locked in permafrost(永冻层)until Fairbanks miners uncovered them in the 1920s. The miners donated the preserved bones to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, where they remained untouched for more than 70 years. After borrowing the bones from the museum, Leonard and her colleagues used radiocarbon techniques to find the age of the Alaska dogs. They found the dogs all lived between the years of 1450 and 1675 A. D. , before Vitus Bering and Aleksey Chirikov who were the first known Europeans to view Alaska in 1741. “The bones of dogs that wandered the Fairbanks area centuries ago should therefore be the remains of pure native American dogs, ”Leonard said. The DNA of the Fairbanks dogs would also expose whether they were the descendants of wolves from North America. Along with the Fairbanks samples, the researchers collected DNA from
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练10 阅读理解。 (2014•濮阳模拟) Our world natural park is one of the most famous parks in the world. Millions of visitors from different countries visit this park every year. In order to protect it, please do as follows: ◆Protect the natural and cultural heritage. Don’t damage or deface any buildings, displays and other facilities. Take care of all plants. Put rubbish in the bins provided. ◆Take care when you are going up and down steps or stairs and when you are walking nearby the waters. ◆Please buy tickets before entering the scenic spot. One ticket is only for one person. Adult: $60 per ticket. Children over 6 and under 18, half price. People over 60 and children under 6 are free. ◆If you are going int o the wooded and hilly lands, for your own safety, please go with three people at least and don’t take any tinder(易燃物)along with you. The hill is steep, so please take care of yourself. ◆This scenic spot is the reserve of water source: No fishing, swimming, washing and any behaviors that are harmful to the water source. Meanwhile, please follow the management rules of the scenic spot conscientiously. ◆Opening time: From Monday to Friday, 8: 00 a. m. -18: 00 p. m. ; From Saturday to Sunday, 6: 00 a. m: -24: 00 p. m. ◆Small animals such as rabbits, peacocks, squirrels, frogs must be taken care of: None of them shall be killed. If you have any trouble in visiting our world natural park, please call 477—866—7044. Our staff will do our best to help you. 【文章大意】在世界自然公园中游玩时, 应该注意些什么呢? 1. How much will be paid for a 65-year-old man with his 8-year-old grandson? A. Free. B. $30. C. $60. D. $120. 【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据游客须知: 60岁以上老人和6岁以下儿童免费, 6岁以上18岁以下孩子半价, 成人价60美元。可知B项正确。 2. On weekends, the opening time is hours longer than weekdays. A. 4 B. 6 C. 8 D. 10 【解析】选C。细节理解题。根据“From Monday to Friday, 8: 00 a. m. -18: 00 p. m. ; From Saturday to Sunday, 6: 00 a. m. -24: 00 p. m. ”可知, C项正确。 3. From the passage, we can infer that the water in this park is . A. clean B. polluted
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练11 阅读理解。 Now scientists believe that global warming affects hibernating animals, causing them to wake up earlier. While this may seem a little concern, it is in fact a significant environmental problem. The shortened hibernation period could actually lead to significant declines in the population of several species. Some of the first concrete evidence of the phenomenon came from Colorado, where researchers at the Rocky Mountain Biological lab have been observing marmot(旱獭)hibernation behavior since the 1970s. In the early days of their studies, ma rmots generally hibernated several weeks into the month of May. Nowadays, however, temperatures in the area have risen by 2. 5 degrees Fahrenheit, and the marmots wake up about a month earlier. At least the marmots are still hibernating. Several other animals have not been hibernating at all recently. Brown bears in the Spanish Cantabrian Mountains did not hibernate last year. In parts of the United States, chipmunks(花鼠)also skipped the hib ernation period. The bears seem to have survived without losing many individuals. The chipmunks, however, were not so lucky. Many of the animals died of starvation during the winter. The problem with animals waking up early, or skipping hibernation altogether, lies with the creatures’ metabolism(新陈代谢). When the animals hibernate, their metabolism drops significantly. The animals’ heart rate slows, and they require very little energy to live. When the animals awake from their winter slumber, their metabolism returns to normal. But while their metabolism may be as active as it was before hibernation, food sources aren’t as available as they were before. A marmot may wake up when temperatures get warmer, thinking it’s spring, but plants will not have got the amount of sun they need to signal their spring period of growth. So until the plants grow, the marmots have no reliable food source. Many scientists believe the problem will continue to get worse. In addition to changes in hibernation patterns, some believe that other animals will also begin to change their migr ation patterns or begin to give birth earlier. For many biologists, that’s a scary prospect. Terry Root, an animal expert at Stanford University, said, “I do thin
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练12 阅读理解。 Once upon a time, on his way to the Himalayas, was a saint(圣徒). He came across a shallow river he had to cross. Just when he was about to wet his feet, he saw a scorpion(蝎子)helplessly trying to come out of the river. It was almost touching the bank but not enough to gain hold of the ground. The saint saw scorpion’s struggle and decided to save it. He picked up the scorpion in his right hand with the intention to place it on the dry surface. No sooner did he do that than the scorpion stung and rushed off the hand, landing in the water again. It struggled to come out of water again. The saint’s body was in pain but his mind, calm. Seeing that the scorpion c ould lose its life, the saint used left hand this time to lift the scorpion out of water. However, it panicked and stung again. Once again, it sped off the hand and fell in water. He was left with both hands filled with pain. He was not the one to give up either. He tried again. This time, he cupped his hands together and lifted the scorpion in one swift movement. Before it could react, he safely dropped it on the land. The scorpion disappeared into the pebbles that lay near the bank. He felt happy, for he succeeded in carrying out his rescue, for saving another life. It was worth the pain he thought. At a distance, a man, surprised and shocked, had watched the whole process. He approached the saint and said, “Can I ask you a question please? ” “Yes, you may. ” “First of all, there was no need to save a scorpion. It does no good to anybody. Secondly, if you must save it, you could have simply tried once. I’m surprised that even after it stung you, you still went on. Why? ” “Oh! That’s pretty simple, ”he replied softly rubbing his stung hands against each other. “This was a scorpion, a creature really low on the food chai n, a creature whose nature is to sting(蜇), to panic, to harm. It is supposed to be weak. However, I am supposed to be a sain t, a person whose job is to love everybody, to offer love. I am supposed to be the strong one, the one higher up on the food chain. With my principles, my philosophy(人生观)and practice, I am supposed to save other creatures. Right? ” The man nodded.
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练2 阅读理解 English as a Foreign Language Who taught you to speak English? Your parents, while you were a young child? Your teachers at school? Perhaps even the BBC as a grown-up. Whoever it was, somehow you have developed an understanding of what is rapidly becoming a truly global language. There are now about 376 million people who speak English as their first language, and about the same number who have learnt it in addition to their mother tongue. There are said to be one billion people learning English now and about 80% of the information on the Internet is in English. Is this a good thing, or a bad thing? Should we celebrate the fact that more and more of us can communicate, using a common language, across countries and cultures? Or should we worry about the dangers of“mono-culturalism”, a world in which we all speak the same language, eat the same food and listen to the same music? Does it matter if an increasing number of people speak the same language? On the contrary, I would have thought-although I have never accepted the argument that if only we all understood each other better, there would be fewer wars. Ask the people of India(where many of them speak at least some English)and Pakistan(the same situation with India). . . If we all speak English, will we then all start eating McDonald’s burgers? Surely not. If English becomes more dominant(占主导地位的), will it kill other languages? I doubt it. When I travel in Africa or Asia, I am always surprised by how many people can speak not only their own language but often one or more other related languages, as well as English and perhaps some French or German as well. When we discussed this on Talking Point a couple of years ago, we receive d a wonderfully poetic email from a listener in Ireland. “The English language is a beautiful language. Maybe it’s like a rose, ”he said. “But who would ever want their garden just full of rose? ” Well, I love roses, and I think they make a beautiful addition to any garden. But the way I see it, just by planting a few roses, you don’t necessarily need to pu
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练3 阅读理解。 I received a call today asking if I would be willing to bring food to a family in need. The mother was having a major operation and would be lying down for several weeks. Of course, I responded with an immediate“Yes! ”. As I planned the meal in my head, I reflected on how many times over the years I had been asked to prepare food. I have done so countless times with a very open heart. But the truly amazing thing is that I have received double over the course of my life. When my mother passed away, our house was filled with fresh dinners for weeks. A woman from the church of our community stepped by each evening with some food. The gift of food was her small way of trying to ease our pain. Later in my life, when I was on bed rest during my pregnancy with twins, women of the church again stepped in to help. They arranged babysitting for my two-year-old daughter, and brought lovely dinners to ou r house. Even when I was put in the hospital, my husband would bring cooked meals to my hospital room. How we relied on these dinners to feed my tired husband and young daughter! Food is all about comfort. It feeds our bodies, but it can also feed our souls. When you hear people talking about their favourite holidays, it usually includes their feelings connected with sharing food. I know that I will have many more opportunities in my lifetime to prepare food for others. It is truly a gift I want to prepare and deliver to someone in need. 【文章大意】作者的母亲过世的时候, 社区教堂中的女人给她带过食物; 作者怀孕的时候, 社区教堂中的女人也同样给她带过食物, 并帮她照顾她两岁的女儿。因此, 今天有人需要帮助的时候, 作者也非常愿意伸出援手。 1. The author has given lots of food to others because . A. she is poor at cooking B. she is a church member C. she is friendly to others D. she has received others’ food 【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第二段“But the truly amazing thing is that I have received double over the course of my life. ”可知作者乐于赠送食物给别人是因为她自己也曾经受到别人的许多馈赠。 2. We can learn from the first paragraph that the author . A. had to stay in bed for several weeks B. knew the family in need very well
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练4 阅读理解。 Once, the Paiter-Surui tribe(部落)lived a happy life in the heart of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. But after the tribe’s first me eting with Westerners several decades ago, they were nearly wiped out; diseases brought by outsiders reduced the Surui’s numbers from 5, 000 to about 250. Today, some 1, 3 00 tribe people live in 23 villages across 600, 000 acres. Though they are as likely to wear T-shirts and jeans as feathered headdresses, the Surui are determined to preserve and protect the tribal culture of their homeland. Now they are under threat again, from illegal logging and deforestation(滥伐), but this time it’s different. The Surui have put aside their bows and arrows and taken up a new weapon: the Internet. The tribe people learned to use the Web from their leader, Chief Almir Narayamoga. “We decided to use computers and technology to bring attention to our situation, ”says Narayamoga, 36. The first in his tribe to attend college, Chief Narayamoga learned how to use computers at the Federal University of Goiás in Goiania, a city of 1. 2 million. In 2007, he fled the Surui homeland after his fight against loggers who placed a $100, 000 reward on his head. He traveled to the United States and paid a visit to Google headquarters in California. He came armed with a big idea. Narayamoga’s visit to Google was considered a great success. And Google sent teams to the Amazon to train the Surui in using computers, cameras, and smart phones to photograph logging sites, which could be pinpointed using GPS technology and then uploaded to Google Earth. The Surui have now mapped the entire reserve and recorded the biodiversity and the rainforest within it. 【文章大意】本文主要讲了巴西土著居民正在利用因特网让世人知道他们的处境, 并开始保护他们的家园。 1. What caused the population of the Amazon tribe to reduce greatly? A. The change of their lifestyles. B. Deforestation. C. Diseases. D. Fighting.
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练5 阅读理解。 It takes more than just practice to become an Olympian. Gold medal performances require some serious nutrition. Have you ever wondered what these successful athletes eat to stay in peak shape? Keri Glassman, a registered dietitian and founder of Nutritious Life Meals, appeared on“Good Morning America”today to give you a glimpse into the diets ofsome top athletes. Some of their meals could surprise you. Crazy Calorie Count Glassman said Olympians eat a lot of food—quantities that for ordinary people would constitute pigging out. One secret of swimmer Michael Phelps’ astonishing performance in the 2008 Olympics in Beijing was consuming as many as 12, 000 calories in one day. Athletes can eat like this and not gain any weight because their workouts are intense. According to Glassman, Phelps’ workouts can burn 4, 000 to 6, 000 calories in a day, and those calories must be added in order to train the following day. Snacking Secrets Some athletes eat strange foods that improve their performance. Yohan Blake, the Jamaica sprinter and 100-meter world champion, has stolen champion sprinter Usain Bolt’s thunder on the track during the Olympic trials. Asked about how he gets his energy, Blake answered that he eats 16 bananas per day, Glassman said. Jonathan Horton, the lead gymnast on the US team, has a blood sugar problem. His solution is honey. When he starts to feel shaky at the gym, he takes honey to boost his energy, Glassman said. Foods for Recovery What are the best foods to help the body recover after harsh competition? For Olympic swimmer Ryan Lochte, the recovery meal is grilled chicken breasts with Alfredo sauce, whole-g rain spaghetti and a salad with lemon juice and olive oil. Lochte, who recently cut out junk food, candy and soda, has undertaken a strength-training regimen(养生法)that involves flipping tractor tires and tossing beer kegs, Glassman said
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练8 阅读理解。 Britain’s long-term unemployed could be forced to carry out manual work or risk losing their welfare benefits under plans being put forward by the government. The U. S. -style scheme would see the long-term jobless ordered to take up four-week placements in order to get them used to having a full-time job. The idea is part of major reforms, due to be unveiled this week, to make cuts to Britain’s huge welfare bill, reduce dependency on benefits and weed out those earning money but not declaring it, papers said. “What we are talking about here is people who have not been used to working having both the opportunity and perhaps a bit more of a push as well, to experience the workplace from time to time. The vast majority of people in Britain will think that is the right thing to do. ”Foreign Secretary William Hague told BBC TV. Shortly after the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Union took power in May, Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan Smith unveiled plans to simplify the complex web of benefits available to reduce errors and inefficiencies. Duncan Smith said the system had become regressive and was not giving people the right encouragement to work as many were financially better off unemployed. Under his plans, separate benefits for items such as housing, income support or disability will be replaced by a“universal credit”system whereby(靠那个)individual households would get a single welfare payment to ensure those in work would be better off. The Observer newspaper said that in return, long-term unemployed would be told to take up work placements of at least 30 hours a week for a four-week period. If they refuse or fail to complete the programme, their jobseekers’ allowance, worth 64. 30 pounds a week for those over 25, could be stopped for at least three months. 【文章大意】由于英国的福利过高, 再加上近年来的经济危 机造成的高失业率, 越来越多的英国人不愿再去劳心费力地工作, 干脆赖在家里向政府伸手要钱。当局为了减少养“好逸恶劳者”的经费, 出台强制性劳动方案, 要求失业的人从事劳力工作, 以此督促他们积极寻找工作。 1. What will the unemployed with welfare benefits face if the major reform takes effect? A. They will lose their welfare benefits if they don’t work. B. They will be encouraged to buy their own farms. C. They will do some kinds of jobs. D. Either A or C. 【解析】选D。细节理解题。第一段第一句话的carry out manual work or risk losing their welfare benefits说明在新政下“懒汉”们面临的两种选择。
2015西安市高考英语冲刺选练9 阅读理解 Linus Pauling, the only person who has won two undivided Nobel Prizes, was born in Portland, Oregon. He attended Washington High School but because of an unimportant detail he did not receive his diploma until 1962, long after he had received his Bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Oregon State College in 1922. He had chosen to study his major because he could get a good job with it. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954 for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the explanation of the structure of complex substances. His interest in the“behavior”of molecules(分子)led him from physical chemistry to biological chemistry, especially of the human body. He began with proteins and their main parts, the amino acids(氨基酸), which are called the“building blocks of life”. In 1950, he constructed the first satisfactory model of a protein molecule, a discovery very important to the understanding of the living cell. During World WarⅡ, Pauling was a member of the Research Board for National Security, for which he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Merit in 1948. However, the use of the atomic bomb near the end of the war turned Pauling in a new direction. Having long worked on the structure of molecules, he took an immediate interest in the deadly effects of nuclear fallout on human molecular structures. From then on, Pauling protested the production of the hydrogen bombs and supported the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. Through his efforts, The Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, declaring all nuclear tests to be illegal except underground ones, came into effect on October 10, 1963, the same day Linus Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. 【文章大意】本文主要介绍了Linus Pauling一生的成就及其对世界所做出的杰出贡献。他是唯一一位两度独立获诺贝尔奖的科学家。 1. From the first paragraph, we learn that Linus Pauling . A. did n’t study hard while in Washington High School B. is the only scientist who has won two Nobel Prizes C. was once badly treated in Washington High School D. chose to study chemical engineering to earn his living 【解析】选D。细节理解题。从第一段最后一句话“He had chosen to stud